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Reverse Osmosis Systems

It is the process of filtering water as a result of pressure applied to a semi-permeable membrane by water pressure. During the passage of water through this membrane, useful items, other than harmful items, are thrown out together with wastewater. The water produced is high-quality water.

Working Principle
In reverse osmosis devices, water passes through several stages before reaching the semi-permeable membrane. At the first stage, there is a micron filter that performs mechanical filtration. In the second stage, the water meets the carbon filter. As water passes through here, chlorine, poison, heavy metals, etc. are removed. In the third stage, water passes through a less permeable membrane than in the first stage, making it suitable for entry into the reverse osmosis membrane.

Reverse Osmosis Types

Devices in the market are divided into household and industrial types. An average household device can extract as much as 200 liters of water per day, while in industrial types, this value can be adjusted according to the need. As is known, reverse osmosis devices are not produced only for drinking water. It is used in all sectors that require treatment of network, for a well, or even seawater.
Osmosis is the event of equalizing ion concentrations of two solutions that have different ion concentrations employing osmotic pressure and have semi-permeable membranes between them. Equalization of ion concentration is achieved by the flow of liquid from a solution with a low concentration to a solution with a high concentration. The speed at which the liquid passes to the other side depends on temperature, pressure, types of ions in the water, and the structure of the membrane.
Membranes are materials that are located between two different media and are usually thin, allowing selective transport of dissolved substances. The driving forces that provide mass flow through the membrane are the difference in pressure, concentration, temperature, and electrical potential. The applied membrane processes vary depending on the type of driving force.


AREAS OF USE
Social use
Soft drink industry
Food industry
Canning industry
Dairy products,
Cheese, yogurt, etc..

WATER SUPPLY FROM SEAWATER

It is used to obtain demineralized water by filtrating the water through the side permeable membrane system under high pressure. Reverse osmosis is used in the treatment of well water and surface water, as well as in the treatment of high saline waters such as seawater. In addition to plant design, pre-treatment also plays a major role in ensuring the life and projected capacity of the membranes used in reverse osmosis plants. For this reason, reverse osmosis plants are designed together with pre-treatment equipment. Pre-treatment equipment is determined by us depending on the source of raw water, its properties, and the type of membranes used in the reverse osmosis unit.

MEMBRANE PROCESSES

The reverse osmosis process is performed by the help of the membranes in the device. Water is forced to pass through 2x10-8 cm diameter membrane pores under high pressure. During this process, water molecules and some inorganic molecules can pass through these pores, while most of the substances in the water cannot pass through these pores and are expelled as concentrated water. In membrane processes, separation occurs according to the differences in the rate of passage of fluids through the membrane. Membranes used in separation processes must have high flux, high selectivity, chemical resistance, and long life. Further steps of microfutration from the filtration stages of water are carried out with membrane processes. Membrane processes water filtration sensitivity, respectively: ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, and the most advanced step are Reverse Osmosis processes. The ultrafiltration process is shown below.

MBR PROCESSES 

MBR units are seen as "next-generation biological wastewater treatment plants” because they require very little space and provide very good output water quality. This technology is sufficient for a simple pre-treatment of wastewater and can be worked with long cleaning intervals.
The high-quality outlet water provided by MBRs also expands the range and the options for use of treated water. Most MBR projects are financially more feasible compared to conventional projects, because of the possibility of recycling or sale of high quality treated wastewater.

Biochemical Oxydation, which occurs in two separate tanks in the conventional activated sludge process, occurs in one tank in the MBR. In this tank, activated sludge is created by ventilation, and purified water is collected by applying vacuum or positive pressure from the very small pores of fibers or flat layer membranes in the membrane cassettes embedded in the water in the tank.

The reverse osmosis filtration system allows achieving much better water quality at the desired capacity than other filtration systems. With the help of recent technology, it is possible to produce fully automatic reverse osmosis devices. Reverse osmosis devices rose to the top position in professional treatment with high-quality water at the desired flow rate. At the reverse osmosis outlet, it is necessary to store the water as the flow rate will be very low. The chassis of reverse osmosis devices are made of stainless steel. They contain all the equipment required to operate. 

ADVANTAGES

The cost of the initial investment of the facility is low.
It works fully automatically without the need for human intervention.
Operating costs and energy consumption are low.
Their units are resistant to all types of corrosion. 

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